Syllabus for


University Course 82:


Magic in the Middle Ages





Prof. Robert Mathiesen


Fall, 2004/5



MWF 12:00-12:50 pm                                                              Bio-Med Center, room 139



Grading Policy                                      Page 2

Calendar                                                 3

Office Hours                                             3

The Goals of the Course                                  3

Disclaimer                                               3

Late Arrival to Class                                    3

Late Assignments                                         4

Requirements and Grading                                 4

Written Assignments                                      5

The Long Research Paper                                  6

Schedule of Classes and Assignments                      7

Bibliography                                            10





Grading Policy


Be advised that I only rarely give a grade of A.  In general, if you have received an A in your other humanities courses at Brown, then expect to receive a B in this course; if a B, then a C.  If you are unwilling to risk receiving a B or a C, you should choose the S/NC grade option.


In general, to receive even a B on a written assignment, you must show a complete and perfect mastery of the mechanics of formal, academic written English (in spelling, punctuation, grammar and lexicon), and your thought must be expressed with great precision and clarity.  Even small flaws can lower your grade to a C, however excellent your ideas might otherwise be.


The grade of A is reserved for those very few assignments that exhibit a depth of wisdom and learning far beyond the usual run of student work at Brown.  It cannot be earned by any amount of extra effort or time that one might put into the work for this class, but signifies an excellence that arises from other causes than hard work alone.








             M    W    F               M    W    F

Week  1  =  --    8   10   Sep. 10  =   8*  10   12    

      2  =  13*  15   17#      11  =  15   17   19

      3  =  20*  22   24       12  =  22   --   --

      4  =  27*  29    1#  Oct. 13  =  29    1    3   Dec.

      5  =   4*   6    8       14  =   6*   8   10*  

      6  =  --   13   15      

      7  =  18   20   22       *  Written assignment due

      8  =  25   27   29       #  Discussion in class

      9  =   1    3    5#  Nov.


Reading Period will not be observed.




Office Hours


Office hours: On Wednesdays, 2:00-4:00 pm (or by appointment), in 022 Marston Hall.




The Goals of the Course


... are (1) to examine how magic developed during the Middle Ages, with some consideration of its Late Antique antecedents and its Modern survivals, and (2) to understand how Medieval magical practices can have seemed to work, and in some cases truly to have worked.






Any comprehensive course on Magic in the Middle Ages has to examine a certain amount of Medieval (and pseudo-Medieval) material that deals with — or even promotes — sex, violence and sexual violence.  This material is mostly textual, but also includes a few images.  Some of this material may offend or intimidate some people.  Please consider this possibility before you enroll.  If you choose to enroll, you do so at your own risk.




Late Arrival to Class


Class begins promptly at 12:00 am, and ends at 12:50 am.  Arriving late, especially if it is frequent or disruptive, may lower your grade.



Late Assignments Not Accepted, Graded or Excused


Each written assignment is due by 5:00 pm on the day indicated in the syllabus.  As a general rule, I will not accept, grade or excuse late assignments.  I will not excuse late work because of conflict with any other commitment, such as an assignment or examination in another course, or an obligation to attend a practice, rehersal, performance or athletic meet.  In such cases, I expect you to complete your work early.  It is your responsibility to anticipate all such conflicts.  If you anticipate that some other other professor, director or coach may put such obligations on you without much advance notice, you should tell him or her about my policy as soon as possible.



Requirements and Grading


In general, your grade will be based on your assigned papers and your participation in class, roughly as follows:

   Short papers (assignments #2-5)                   1/3

   Long research paper (assignments #5-6)       1/3

   Class participation (esp. Friday Discussions)     1/3

The professor reserves the right to change the proportions as the course progresses, as may seem advisable to him.  He will announce any such change in class.


Friday Discussions.  On three Fridays (indicated in the calendar and in the schedule of classes and assignments) the class will consist of student discussion of a text that has been specifically assigned for that day.  Every student is expected to have read the assigned text with great care well in advance of the discussion, and to have thought about it at some length before class.


Written Assignments.  All papers for this course must be printed (or typewritten).  Handwritten papers will be returned without credit and without a grade (unless prior permission has been obtained from me). 


Papers must be double-spaced, in a 12-point font, with 1.25" right, left and bottom margins and 1" top margin, to leave room for the professor’s comments.


I require two copies of each written assignment.


I will grade your papers primarily on the quality of your thought and the clarity of your writing.  I also require that you have mastered all the mechanics of writing formal, academic English (spelling, punctuation, grammar, lexicon), and I will downgrade you for lapses in any of these areas. 


Research essays must include a full formal bibliography of your sources, and must use footnotes or internal citations wherever you draw on these sources, whether you quote them directly or merely paraphrase their language, arguments and trains of thought.  Consult the most recent edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for a detailed treatment of the standard conventions.


Plagiarism.  Failure to cite all your sources in detail, throughout your entire paper, is considered plagiarism, and is a serious violation of the Academic Code.  Brown is very strict about such things, and may even expel a student for such a violation.


Every essay must be the product of your own unaided work.  It is also considered plagiarism, and a serious violation of the Academic Code, to work on your papers (or even on the outline or the arguments or the bibliography for your papers) together with anyone else, unless the professor specifically authorizes such joint work.  I do not authorize any joint work on papers for this course.


However, I do authorize you to consult as needed with people who can help you improve your mastery of formal academic English and its mechanics (grammar, punctuation, lexicon, style).




Written Assignments


Assignments #1 and #7 are brief personal essays, perhaps 2 pages long.  No research is needed here, just knowledge of yourself and good writing.


Assignments #2-4 are short papers, perhaps 3-5 pages long.  What is required above all is profound thought and deep insight into the material.  It is possible, but difficult, to write a superb paper of this sort with little or no scholarly research or bibliography.  However, if you do rely on other sources, you must cite them.


Assignments #5-6 are, respectively, a detailed outline and bibliography, and a final version of a long research paper, perhaps 15-25 pages long. This work must be the result not only of profound thought and deep insight, but also the result of your outside reading and extra research (i.e., beyond what in in the books assigned for the course).


Assignment #1 (due 9/13).  Write a brief essay about the personal and/or academic interests that led you to enroll in this course, also what you hope to get out of it, and what previous exposure (if any) you may have had to magic or magical religion.  Please include anything which will shed light on your choice of this course.  This brief personal essay will not be graded, and will remain confidential.  Please keep this essay on your computer, as you may wish to revise to it at the end of the course (see assignment #7 below).


Assignment #2 (due 9/20).  Short Paper.  Practitioners of magic commonly believe that words (incantations, true names, etc.) are very useful tools — perhaps the most important tools of all — for working magic, and that these words become more powerful the more unlike every-day speech they are.  Explain why the use of words should be so wide-spread and so important in magic.


Assignment #3 (due 9/27).  Short Paper.  Magic spells and rituals commonly speak of binding and unbinding, knotting and unknotting, locking and unlocking.  At times, too, binding or unbinding, knotting or unknoting, or locking or unlocking is actually carried out as a part of some spell, ritual or practice in magic.  Explain why and how this has been so common in magic throughout the ages.


Assignment #4 (due 10/4).  Short Paper.  Design a well-crafted magic spell or ritual for the purpose of ensuring that you will get a grade of A on this assignment.  (You are not required to perform this ritual or spell, just to design it!)  Note: if you feel uncomfortable actually designing a spell or ritual, you may analyze an actual Medieval spell instead.  See the professor for a copy of that spell.


Assignment #5 (due 11/8).  Hand in a detailed outline and full bibliography for your long research paper.  (See #6 below.) 


Assignment #6 (due 12/6).  Hand in the final version of your long research paper.


Assignment #7 (due 12/10).  Critically re-read your initial personal essay (assignment #1 above), and write a second brief essay explaining what you have learned since you wrote that first essay. This essay, too, will not be graded, and will remain confidential.




The Long Research Paper


Your long research paper may be on any topic that you like, provided that I have approved it in advance.  You should have chosen your topic and gotten it approved by Monday of the seventh week of the semester (10/18), as a detailed outline and bibliography will be due three weeks later (11/8).  (Any change in topic after this date will require the advance submission of a new detailed outline and a new bibliography.)  Here are two examples of possible topics:


1.  Investigate some magical or divinatory practice that you have personally witnessed (or have carried out yourself).  Consider its historical antecedents, its effectiveness (if any), and the very difficult question of just how one might determine that effectiveness.


2.  Trace the history of some magical or divinatory practice from Antiquity up to the end of the Middle Ages, or even up to modern times.  Show how it changed over that period of time.  What factors contributed to these changes in the given practice?  What factors caused it to survive — despite these changes or because of them — for all those centuries?




Schedule of Classes and Assignments


An asterisk (*) marks the days on which a written assignment is due.




  1  Introduction

     W.  [Administrative Matters.]  The Middle Ages.

     F.  What is Magic?


  2  The Sources of Medieval Magic, I

     M.* History of Magic to the End of Antiquity.

     W.  Late Antique Syncretistic Magic: Its Origins,

           Proscription and Survival.

     F.  [Discussion:] A Sex Spell from Late Antiquity.

     Required by Monday of this week:

         Kieckhefer Magic in the Middle Ages (ch. 1-2)

        Cavendish History of Magic (prologue, ch. 1)


        Luck Arcana Mundi (all the introductions)

        Betz The Greek Magical Papyri (pp. xli-lviii)

        Gager Curse Tablets and Binding Spells (skim)

        Meyer & Smith Ancient Christian Magic (skim)


  3  The Sources of Medieval Magic, II

     M.* The Hermetic Writings.

     W.  Theurgy.

     F.  A Scholarly Controversy: Was Jesus a Magician?

     Required by Monday of this week:

        Cavendish History of Magic (ch. 2)

        Luck, "Theurgy" [xerocopy]


        Smith Jesus the Magician (skim)


  4  Germanic Traditions in Medieval Magic

     M.* Sagas and Seidhr

     W.  Spells and Charms

     F.  [Discussion:] An Anglo-Saxon Magical Ritual

     Required by Monday of this week:

         Kieckhefer Magic in the Middle Ages (ch. 3-4)


  5  Celtic Traditions in Medieval Magic

     M.* Second Sight.

        Last day to change your grade option to S/NC

     W.  Celtic Magical Prayers.

     F.  The Holy Grail.

     Required by Monday of this week:

         Kieckhefer Magic in the Middle Ages (ch. 5)


  6  Magic and the Medieval Educated Elite, I

     M.  [no class]

     W.  Astrology.

     F.  Alchemy.

     Required by Wednesday of this week:

        Kieckhefer Magic in the Middle Ages (ch. 6)


  7  Magic and the Medieval Educated Elite, II

     M.  The Influence of Islamic and Jewish Magic. 

     W.  Al-Kindi’s On Stellar Rays

     F.  Geomancy and Other Means of Divination.

     Required by Monday of this week:

         Kieckhefer Magic in the Middle Ages (ch. 7)


  8  Magic and the Medieval Educated Elite, III

     M.  The Clerical Underground and Ritual Magic.

     W.  The Sworn Book of Honorius of Thebes.

     F.  The Great Witch-Hunt.

     Required by Monday of this week:

        Kieckhefer Magic in the Middle Ages (ch. 8)

        Mathiesen "A 13th-Century Ritual" [xerocopy]


        Peters (intro.; ch. 1, 4-6; skim ch. 2-3)


  9  Medieval Magic in the Modern Era, I

     M.  The Renaissance Synthesis of Magical Traditions.

     W.  Agrippa’s On Occult Philosophy.

     F.  [Discussion:] The Key of Solomon and Related Texts.

     Required by Monday of this week:

        Cavendish History of Magic (ch. 3)

        Mathers Key of Solomon

        Agrippa On Occult Philosophy (Consult the

             special study guide for Agrippa.)


 10  Medieval Magic in the Modern Era, II

     M.* The Grimoires.

     W.  Freemasons and Rosicrucians.

     F.  The Rise of Modern Occultism and Paganism.

[continued on the next page]

     Required by Monday of this week:

        Cavendish History of Magic (ch. 4)

        Hutton Triumph (ch. 1-10)

        Leland Aradia (1990 basic edition)

        Mathiesen "Charles G. Leland" [xerocopy]


        Waite The Book of Ceremonial Magic (esp. pt. I,

             ch. 1-4; skim pt. II)


 11  Modern Magical Movements and Methods, I

     M.  Orders and Lodges.

     W.  Wicca and its Origins

     F.  Modern Magical Methods

     Required by Monday of this week:

        Hutton Triumph (ch. 11-20)

        Greer Inside a Magical Lodge (esp. ch. 1-5, 12-13)


        Luhrmann Persuasions (ch. 1-17)


 12  Modern Magical Movements and Methods, II

     M.  Modern Magical Methods (continued)

     W.  [no class]

     F.  [no class]

     Required by Monday of this week:

        Farrar & Farrar A Witches’ Bible (esp. pt. I, pp.

             11-57; pt. II, pp. 105-280)  

        The Book of Shadows


 13  The Effectiveness of (Medieval) Magic

     M.  Material Causes.

     W.  The Mind-Body Link.

     F.  States of Consciousness.

     Required by Monday of this week:

        Neher (ch. 1-5, 8; just skim ch. 6-7, 9)

        Magliocco Witching Culture (ch. 3-5)


 14  The Effectiveness of Medieval Magic

     M.* Interpersonal Causes.

     W.  Other Causes.

     F.* Why Study Magic?  Retrospect on the Course.

     Required by Monday of this week:

        Leland Gypsy Sorcery (ch. 11-12) [xerocopy]

        Seabrook Witchcraft (selected chapters) [xerocopy]

        Luhrmann Persuasions (ch. 18-23)


        Leland The Mystic Will (just skim)



Books Required, Recommended, or Simply Relevant


Jeanne Achterberg.  Imagery in Healing: Shamanism and Modern Medicine.  Boston & London: Shambhala, 1985.


Margot Adler.  Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers and Other Pagans in America Today.  2nd ed.  Boston: Beacon, 1986.


H. C. Agrippa.  Three Books of Occult Philosophy.  St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn, 1993.


Bengt Ankarloo & Gustav Henningsen, edd.  Early Modern European Witchcraft: Centres and Peripheries.  Oxford: Clarendon, 1990.


Hans Dieter Betz, ed.  The Greek Magical Papyri in Trans-lation, Including the Demotic Spells.  Chicago & London: University of Chicago, 1986.


Susan Blackmore & Adam Hart-Davis.  Test Your Psychic Powers.  London: Thorsons, 1995.


Isaac Bonewits.  Real Magic: An Introductory Treatise on the Basic Principles of Yellow Magic.  Revised ed.  York Beach, ME: Weiser, 1989.


Philip Carr-Gomm, ed.  The Druid Renaissance: The Voice of Druidry Today.  London: Thorsons, 1996.


Richard Cavendish.  A History of Magic.  London: Arkana, 1987.


Nicholas H. Clulee.  John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion.  London — New York: Routledge, 1988.


Aleister Crowley.  Magick: Liber ABA: Book Four, Parts I-IV. Ed. Hymenaeus Beta.  York Beach, ME: Weiser, 1994.


John Putnam Demos.  Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England.  Oxford (UK): Oxford UP, 1982.


Mircea Eliade.  Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy.  Transl. by W. R. Trask.  (Bollingen Series, LXXVI.)  Princeton: Princeton UP, 1964.


Claire Fanger, ed.  Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic.  University Park, PA: The State University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.


Janet & Stewart Farrar.  A Witches’ Bible: The Complete Witches’ Handbook.  Custer, WA: Phoenix Publishing, n.d.  [= A Witches Bible Compleat.  New York: Magickal Childe, New York: Magickal Childe, ©1981-84.]


Valerie I. J. Flint.  The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe.  Princeton: Princeton UP, 1991.


Stephen E. Flowers.  Runes and Magic: Magical Formulaic Elements in the Older Runic Tradition.  New York: P. Lang, 1986.


Stephen E. Flowers.  The Galdrabók: An Icelandic Grimoire.  York Beach, ME: Weiser, 1989.


Garth Fowden.  The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind.  [Facsimile reprint.]  Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1993.


Peter French.  John Dee: The World of an Elizabethan Magus.  London — New York: Ark, 1987.


John G. Gager.  Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World.  New York — Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992.


Carlo Ginzburg.  Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches' Sabbath.  New York: Pantheon, 1991.


Stephen O. Glosecki.  Shamanism and Old English Poetry.  New York: Garland, 1989.


Richard Godbeer.  The Devil's Dominion: Magic and Religion in Early New England.  Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992.


Joscelyn Godwin.  The Theosophical Enlightenment.  Albany, NY: State University of New York, 1994.


John Michael Greer.  Inside a Magical Lodge: Group Ritual in the Western Tradition.  St. Paul: Llewellyn, 1998.


Graham Harvey & Charlotte Hardman, edd.  Paganism Today.  London: Thorsons, 1995.


Philip Heselton.  Wiccan Roots: Gerald Gardner and the Modern Witchcraft Revival.  Freshfields, Chieveley, Berks: Capall Bann, 2000.


Ellen Evert Hopman & Lawrence Bond.  People of the Earth: The New Pagans Speak Out.  Rochester, VT: Destiny, 1996.


Harry Houdini.  Houdini on Magic.  New York: Dover, 1953.


Ronald Hutton.  The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy.  Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.


Ronald Hutton.  The Rise and Fall of Merry England: The Ritual Year, 1400-1700.  Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994.


Ronald Hutton.  Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain.  Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996.


Ronald Hutton.  The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft.  Oxford–New York: Oxford UP, 1999.


Sarah Iles Johnston.  Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature.  (American Classical Studies, no. 21.)  Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1990.


Karen Louise Jolly.  Popular Religion in Late Saxon England: Elf Charms in Context.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1996.


Prudence Jones & Caitlín Matthews.  Voices from the Circle: The Heritage of Western Paganism.  Wellingborough (UK): Aquarian, 1990.


Prudence Jones & Nigel Pennick.  A History of Pagan Europe.  London and New York: Routledge, 1995.


Aidan A. Kelly.  Crafting the Art of Magic, Book I: A History of Modern Witchcraft, 1939-1964.  St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn, 1991.


Richard Kieckhefer. European Witch Trials: Their Foundations in Popular and Learned Culture, 1300-1500.  Berkeley — Los Angeles: University of California, 1976.


Richard Kieckhefer.  Magic in the Middle Ages.  Cam-bridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.


Richard Kieckhefer.  Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century.  University Park, PA: The State University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.


George Lyman Kittredge.  Witchcraft in Old and New England.  Cambridge: Harvard, 1929.


Charles Godfrey Leland.  Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches.  [Reprint.]  Custer, WA: Phoenix, 1990.


Charles G. Leland and Mario Pazzaglini.  Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches, expanded ed.  Custer, WA: Phoenix Publishing, 1999.

Charles Godfrey Leland.  Etruscan Roman Remains in Popular Tradition.  London: Unwin — New York: Scribner's, 1892.


Charles Godfrey Leland.  Gypsy Sorcery and Fortune Telling.  [Reprint.]  New York: Citadel, 1991.


Charles Godfrey Leland.  The Mystic Will.  [Reprint.]  Chicago: Yogi, n.d.


Georg Luck.  Arcana Mundi: Magic and Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds.  Baltimore & London: Johns Hopkins UP, 1985.


Georg Luck.  "Theurgy and Forms of Worship in Neoplatonism," in Neusner, Frerichs & McCracken Flesher (1989), 185-225 [= ch. 8].


T. M. Luhrmann.  Persuasions of the Witch's Craft: Ritual Magic in Contemporary England.  Cambridge: Harvard, 1989.


Sabina Magliocco.  Witching Culture: Folklore and Neo-Paganism in America.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.


Henry Maguire, ed.  Byzantine Magic.  Washington, DC: Dum-barton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1995.


S. Liddell MacGregor Mathers.  The Key of Solomon the King.   [Reprint.]  York Beach, ME: Weiser, 1989.


S. Liddell MacGregor Mathers.  The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage.   [Reprint.]  New York: Dover, 1975.


S. Liddell MacGregor Mathers.  The Goetia: The Lesser Key of Solomon the King, ed. Aleister Crowley.  2nd ed.  York Beach, ME: Weiser, 1995.


Robert Mathiesen.  "Magic in Slavia Orthodoxa: The Written Tradition," in Maguire (1995), 155-77 [= ch. 8].


Robert Mathiesen.  "A Thirteenth-Century Ritual to Attain the Beatific Vision from the Sworn Book of Honorius of Thebes," in Fanger (1998), 143-162 [= ch. 6].


Robert Mathiesen.  "Charles G. Leland and the Witches of Italy: The Origin of the Aradia," in Leland and Pazza-glini (1999).


Ingrid Merkel & Allen G. Debus.  Hermeticism and the Renaissance: Intellectual History and the Occult in Early Modern Europe.  Washington, DC: Folger, 1988.


Ralph Merrifield.  The Archaeology of Ritual and Magic.  New York: New Amsterdam, 1987.


Marvin Meyer and Richard Smith.  Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power.  San Francisco, CA: Harper-SanFrancisco. 1994.


Michael A. Morgan, translator.  Sepher Ha-Razim: The Book of Mysteries.  (Society of Biblical Literature, Texts and Translations, no. 25 [= Pseudepigrapha Series, no. 11].)   Chico, CA: Scholars, 1983.


Andrew Neher.  Paranormal and Transcendent Experience: A Psychological Examination [= The Psychology of Transcendence.  2nd ed.  New York: Dover, 1990.


Jacob Neusner, Ernest S. Frerichs & Paul Virgil McCracken Flesher.  Religion, Science, and Magic in Concert and in Conflict.  New York & Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.


Daniel Lawrence O'Keefe.  Stolen Lightening: The Social Theory of Magic.  New York: Continuum, 1982.


Edward Peters.  The Magician, the Witch and the Law.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1978.


Sarah M. Pike.  Earthly Bodies, Magical Selves: Contem-porary Pagans and the Search for Community.  Berkeley – Los Angeles – London: University of California Press, 2001.


Geraldine Pinch.  Magic in Ancient Egypt. Austin, TX: Univ. of Texas, 1994.


Vance Randolph.  Ozark Magic and Folklore.  [Reprint.]  New York: Dover, 1964.


Elliot Rose.  A Razor for a Goat: A Discussion of Certain Problems in the History of Witchcraft and Diabolism.  Toronto: University of Toronto, 1962.


Jeffrey B. Russell.  A History of Witchcraft: Sorcerers, Heretics, and Pagans.  New York: Thames and Hudson, 1980.


Allen Scarboro, Nancy Campbell, and Shirley Stave.  Living Witchcraft:  A Contemporary American Coven.  Westport CT: Praeger, 1994.


Reginald Scot.  The Discoverie of Witchcraft. [Originally published in 1584.]  New York: Dover, 1972.


William Seabrook.  Witchcraft: Its Power in the World Today.  New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1940.

The Skeptical Inquirer.  [Buffalo, NY:] Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, 1976 to present.


Morton Smith.  Jesus the Magician.  San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978.


David Stevenson.  The Origins of Freemasonry: Scotland's Century, 1590-1710.  Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.


David Stevenson.  The First Freemasons: Scotland's Early Lodges and their Members.  Aberdeen: Aberdeen UP, 1989.


Stanley Jeyaraja Tambiah.  Culture, Thought, and Social Action: An Anthropological Perspective.  [Reprinted articles.]  Cambridge: Harvard, 1985.


Stanley Jeyaraja Tambiah.  Magic, Science, Religion, and the Scope of Rationality.  Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.


Keith Thomas.  Religion and the Decline of Magic.  New York: Scribner's, 1971.


Lynn Thorndike.  A History of Magic and Experimental Science.  8 volumes.  New York: Columbia, 1923-58.


Joshua Trachtenberg.  Jewish Magic and Superstition.  [Reprint.]  New York: Macmillan (Atheneum), 1970.


Arthur Edward Waite.  The Book of Ceremonial Magic.  [Reprint.]  Secaucus, NJ: Citadel, 1961.


Frances A. Yates.  Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradi-tion.  Chicago: University of Chicago, 1964.


Frances A. Yates.  The Art of Memory.  Chicago: University of Chicago, 1966.


Frances A. Yates.  Theatre of the World.  Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, 1969.


Frances A. Yates.  The Rosicrucian Enlightenment.  London & Boston: Routledge & K. Paul, 1972.


Frances A. Yates.  The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age.  London & Boston: Routledge & K. Paul, 1979.


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Posted 19 July 2005